When to quote and when to paraphrase
- demonstrate that you understand the source material,
When using external information for your assignments, it is generally better to paraphrase or summarize material rather than quoting it word-for-word. Using your own words allows you to:
- frame the information to make the point you want to make,
- maintain a consistent style.
But even when summarizing you must acknowledge the author, and give enough information your reader to reach your source of information through:
- An in-text citation next to each paraphrased idea or borrowed image, and
- A reference in the bibliography by the end of the text.
In-text citations should include the author's last name and the publication year enclosed in parenthesis.
...Carter et al. (2012) found that the incidence of credit card fraud had been underestimated by at least 50 per cent...
Include a figure number and a title on top and if needed a legend and caption below the image or table.
Figure 4. Yemen crisis.
At the end of your assessment task, provide a list of references in alphabetical order. Here are some samples on how to write references based on their sources:
Stevenson, R. L. (1975). Treasure Island. Atheneum.
Duby, G. (1993). L'invention de l`histoire au mon médiéval. Cahiers d'Etudes Medièvales, 126, 910-924.
Plagiarism. (2015, February 28). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of image [Image]. https://www.someaddress.com/full/url
Tugnoli, L. (2019). Yemen crisis [Image]. https://i.blogs.es/fee2b8/yemen-lorenzo-tugnoli-02/1366_2000.jpg
Sometimes, certain data may be missing, making it challenging to create a complete reference.
- If the author is missing, start the reference by the title
Title. (Date of publication). https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
- If the date is missing, write "n.d." for "no date".
Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
- If the title is missing, describe the document inside square brackets, and provide the source
Here's a sample of all of them combined:
If you must quote word-for-word, then you will write the text:
- Enclosed by quotation marks if they are shorter than 40 words or,
- Placed in a free-standing "block quotation" on a new line,
indented five spaces, when
longer than forty words.
According to Miguel de Cervantes ¨Truth will rise above falsehood as oil above water. ¨ (as cited in BrainyQuote, 2015)
For more examples and extended information on how to cite with APA check the APA Style website.