In-text citations must contain the author's last name and the publication year enclosed in parenthesis.
In-text citations can be presented in different ways, sometimes the source author's name appears as the subject of the sentence, those are commonly referred to as 'author-prominent' citations. If you use this form of citation, you emphasize that what is being presented is specifically the author's action or opinion:
The other main form of citation is commonly referred to as 'information prominent'. In this form of citation, the source material is presented first, and the reference follows:
These differences are significant because they allow you to 'frame' the source material and, in doing so, influence the way the reader perceives it.
To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, or figure table at the appropriate point in the text:
When to quote and when to paraphrase:
- demonstrate that you understand the source material,
When you are introducing source material into your essay, you need to decide whether to quote the material word-for-word or rewrite the information in your own words. For most types of essay, it is advisable to paraphrase or summarize material much more frequently than to quote it word-for-word. Using your own words allows you to:
- frame the information to make the point your want to make,
- maintain a consistent style.
Sometimes, however, it is appropriate to quote word-for-word. For some subject disciplines, such as law or literature, you are much more likely to use word-for-word quotes than in others.
Direct quotations must be enclosed by quotation marks if they are shorter than 40 words or, when longer, be placed in a free-standing "block quotation" on a new line, indented five spaces .
Tables and figures:
Number all tables with arabic numerals sequentially. Provide a general note to the table to explain, qualify or provide information about the table as a whole. Put explanations of abbreviations, symbols, etc. here. If using tables from a source, copy the structure of the original exactly, and cite the source in accordance with APA style.
A reference list alphabetically ordered must be provided at the end of your assessment task. Reference lists allow others to access your sources, therefore full details of all the published sources used must be given.
Although the structure is mainly the same for all the references, every support (book, journal, article, image, online resource...) has specific features, so they will look like slightly different:
Stevenson, R. L. (1975). Treasure Island. New York, NY: Atheneum.
Duby, G. (1993). L'invention de l`histoire au mon médiéval. Cahiers d'Etudes Medièvales, 126, 910-924.
Plagiarism. (2015, February 28). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism
If you only cite an abstract, add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name.
Sometimes one or more of the necessary pieces for building a reference is missing, and writing the reference can get more difficult.
- If author is missing, substitute title for author; then provide date and source
- If date is missing, provide author, substitute n.d. for no date, and then give title and source
- If title is missing, provide author and date, describe document inside square brackets, and then give source
Here's a sample of all of them combined:
- Easybib and Cite this for me: are two examples of websites that will give format to your references in the style desired (APA, MLA...)
- Zotero and Refworks: Are bibliography managers, they allow you to download and store locally your information sources metadata directly from websites, catalogs... and export them in the required format.
- Microsoft Word and many word processors provide tools to built a reference list.